This application note looks at the use of Pico ADC convertors for Audio Spectrum analysis, topics covered are :
Spectrum analyzers tend to fall into two categories, so called 'swept' spectrum analyzers and FFT based spectrum analyzers. Swept spectrum analyzers work by using one or more notch filters (or mixers) to measure the signal amplitude at a given frequency, by changing (or sweeping) the frequency of this filter a plot of amplitude against frequency can be constructed. Swept spectrum analyzers still have their place in high frequency spectrum analysis, but for audio work they have the disadvantage that the signal must be constant for the whole period of the sweep.
FFT based spectrum analyzers work by digitising the signal of interest using a analog to digital convertor (ADC). The stored values are then processed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. The advantage of this method is that the spectrum of one off or short duration events can be captured. For example using PicoScopes trigger capabilities it is possible to capture the spectrum of a single drum beat.
Performing spectrum analysis requires a lot of calculations, some FFT based spectrum analyzers can take several seconds to update a trace. PicoScope uses an optimised, high speed routine for spectrum analysis that results in 'real time' results. Even on a relatively modest computer such as a 33MHz 486 PC the spectrum analyser can still update many times a second.
Although most of the Pico ADC range can be used for audio spectrum analysis, the higher resolution devices are most suited. For the high end professional testing the ADC216 is hard to beat. For general purpose work the ADC212 is ideal. If cost is an issue, consider the ADC100 or ADC42.
The two key specifications for a FFT analyser are sampling rate and dynamic range. A spectrum analyser will be able to display up to one half of the maximum sampling rate. To cover the entire 20kHz audio band this calls for a sampling rate in excess of 40ksps. If you are interested in testing the frequency response of amplifiers you may wish to look well beyond the 20kHz point so a higher sampling rate is required.
The dynamic range of the spectrum analyser is the next most important consideration. Most oscilloscopes (whether PC based or benchtop) have an 8 bit resolution (256 steps). This limits spectrum analysis to 48dB of dynamic range (20log256) The ADC40 and ADC200 are both 8 bit devices. Unusually for oscilloscopes, the ADC42, ADC100 and ADC212 are 12 bit devices (4096 steps) which gives a theoretical maximum of 72dB of dynamic range. The ADC212 through a combination of oversampling, digital filtering and software averaging can actually improve on this theoretical 72dB. The ADC216 with its 16 bit resolution (65536 steps) has close to 100dB of dynamic range.
To put these figures in context a typical tape deck would have 40 to 50dB of dynamic range, a quality power amplifier 70 to 80dB and a top end CD player 80 to 90dB. As you will see below not all CD players live up to this.
The specification of these devices is summarised in the table below.
|Unit||Resolution||Sampling rate||Spectrum range||Dynamic range|
|ADC-216||16 bit||333 ksps||166 kHz||>95dB|
|ADC-100||12 bit||100 ksps||50k Hz||>70dB|
|ADC-42||12 bit||20 ksps||10k Hz||>65dB|
|ADC-200/100||8 bit||100 Msps||50 MHz||>50dB|
To show the sort of performance you can expect with the ADC216 spectrum analyser we decided to test two CD players. We chose a 'budget' portable model and a high quality unit from Quad. One channel of the ADC216 was connected directly to the portable CD player. The PicoScope trace below shows a pure 1kHz tone from a test CD. As expected the result is a sharp peak at 1kHz. The second, third and fifth harmonics are clearly visible showing distortion caused by the CD player. The peaks around 18kHz are caused by the switching power supply inside the CD players mains adaptor. If the CD player is run on batteries this noise disappears.
Next we repeated the experiment with the Quad CD player. As expected the results were much improved, the 5th harmonic is the most significant, 96dB down on the main signal. The window showing measurements and harmonics is a program that takes data from PicoScope (using DDE) to automate audio measurements. If you would like a copy, please contact Martin Berriman
Crosstalk is an important performance indicator that can easily be measured with a spectrum analyser. We played a 10kHz sinewave (-10dB) on the right channel of each CD player in turn (measured with the ADC216). Ideally no signal would be present in the right channel, on the portable CD player the crosstalk is visible 60dB down on the signal on the left channel.
On the Quad CD player, the crosstalk is at least 90dB down.
An ideal CD player should have a flat frequency response over the whole audio spectrum. The specifications of our portable CD player stated a 20Hz to 20kHz response within 3dB. We tested this using a sinewave that sweeps from 0 to 20kHz. Plotting such a frequency response is not possible with many FFT spectrum analysers as they take a quick snapshot of the signal then take several seconds processing and displaying the results, the result tends to be that only one frequency peak gets captured during the sweep. PicoScope's data collection and processing is optimised for speed - even on a relatively slow PC (33MHz 386) the spectrum analyser has a near instantaneous 'real time' update rate. The sinewave used for our test takes about 30 seconds to sweep from 20Hz to 20kHz, in this time PicoScope performs 100s of FFTs rather than the 2 or 3 that most FFT spectrum analysers can manage. To display the frequency response as a single line rather than a moving peak, we used PicoScope's peak detect function as shown below. As you can see the -3dB point is not the 20kHz claimed by the data sheet, but is nearer 16kHz.
When the test was repeated on the Quad CD player, the frequency response was almost flat to 20kHz. It also exhibits a sharper drop off after 20kHz.
Several customers have asked for our advice on what type of signal source is best for testing amplifiers. The problem is finding a signal generator or sinewave source with a low enough distortion figure. We have been particularly impressed with the Black Star LDO100 low distortion oscillator. The trace below shows its output at 1kHz when plugged directly into a ADC216.